His lictors had their fasces broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. The poor were offered opportunities with the founding of new towns in Gaul and Spain and the reconstruction of cities like Carthage and Corinth.
He ran against two powerful senators. The election was sordid — even Catowith his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his command and enter Rome as a private citizen.
He marched into Macedonia with starving troops after his near-defeat by Pompey. This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the Emperor Augustus. There was awareness here that moral laxity in one area, such as sexual relations, spills over into other areas and that leaders who were unfaithful in marriage might also be untrustworthy in public office.
In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. Caesar's body was cremated, and on the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum.
His boldness was evidenced in his work against the pirates and in his military campaigns. He took another approach and sliced through the knot with his sword, claiming triumph. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar.
In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator in perpetuity.
Rome was on the brink of civil war. In order to combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an army in Greece, Antony needed both the cash from Caesar's war chests and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide in any action he took against the two.
He served with distinction, winning the Civic Crown for his part in the Siege of Mytilene. He tells us that Caesar constantly sought glory, even from a young age.
Crassus paid some of Caesar's debts and acted as guarantor for others, in return for political support in his opposition to the interests of Pompey. This page was created in ; last modified on 13 December Caesar treated this as an aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal.
No distinct personality or part in myths. Aftermath of the civil war Caesar returned to Italy in September 45 B. Caesar likewise ornamented his native intelligence and drive for conquest with the best education available in the classical world. However, poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time.
This was the last act of the First Triumvirate. Gallic Wars The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests Caesar was still deeply in debt, but there was money to be made as a governor, whether by extortion  or by military adventurism.
He lacked means since his inheritance was confiscated, but he acquired a modest house in Suburaa lower-class neighbourhood of Rome.
In Roman eyes, this did not even constitute adultery, which could only occur between two Roman citizens. Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms.
Finally rid of Darius, Alexander proclaimed himself King of Persia. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. He also extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries.
Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar. Aftermath of the assassination The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The owner of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the room with this painting, most likely in immediate reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Augustus in 30 BC, when artistic depictions of Caesarion would have been considered a sensitive issue for the ruling regime.
The Triumvirate was dead. His wife Cornelia also died that year. According to the nineteenth century German historian Theodor Mommsen, Caesar's aim was the highest which a man is allowed to propose himself—the political, military, intellectual, and moral regeneration of his own deeply decayed nation […] The hard school of thirty years' experience changed his views as to the means by which this aim was to be reached; his aim itself remained the same in the times of his hopeless humiliation and of his unlimited plenitude of power, in the times when as demagogue and conspirator he stole towards it by paths of darkness, and in those when, as joint possessor of the supreme power and then as monarch, he worked at his task in the full light of day before the eyes of the world.
Several Senators had conspired to assassinate Caesar. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the great dictator.
All went well until they came within striking distance of the Tyrians. Shortly before the assassination of Caesar, Cassius met with the conspirators and told them that, if anyone found out about the plan, they were going to turn their knives on themselves. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome.
Accusations of bribery were made by all sides.¶ Alexander modelled himself on Hercules, Achilles, and Cyrus; Caesar on Alexander.
 Of all the comparisons there is something singular about this pairing, for Plutarch records no one else so affected by the life of the man he emulated as was Caesar who wept when reading the life of Alexander. Cleopatra was the name of Alexander the Great's sister, as well as Cleopatra Alcyone, wife of Meleager in Greek mythology.
Through the marriage of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I Syra (a Seleucid princess), the name entered the Ptolemaic dynasty. Julius Caesar helped build this great empire as well as a political role model. “ Caesar was a politician and general of the late Roman republic, who greatly extended the Roman Empire before seizing power and making himself dictator of Rome, paving the way for the imperial system” (BBC).
A well-known theme was the comparison of Alexander the Great and the Roman commander Gaius Julius Caesar (). The following text was written by the Greek historian Appian of Alexandria (cc) and is a part of his History of the Civil wars ().
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar are two very important and influential men in the history of the world. Alexander was a Greek king and a military commander of one of the most successful armies in the world during the ancient times. Julius Caesar (July BC - March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose.
He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.Download